The Center for X-Ray Optics is a multi-disciplined research group within Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Materials Sciences Division (MSD). Notice to users.

Custom nanostructures that enable nanoscience.

The CXRO Nanowriter Electron-Beam Lithography Lab

"We manufacture custom nanostructures for a diverse set of applications worldwide. Our experienced team of scientists and engineers is here to push the limits of nanofabrication and help you realize the unique goals of your project. Our flexible environment and ability to tap into other resources at Berkeley Lab enable us to address applications ranging from semiconductors and magnetics to optics and nano-mechanics."

Erik Anderson,
Nanowriter Principal Scientist

Photo of Erik Anderson, CXRO Staff Scientist

20 years of experience in everything nano.

Diffraction gratings (below)
Grayscale masks
Holographic elements

MEMS (below)
Patterned media
Photonic crystals
Programmed defects

Roughness control
System integration
Zone plates (below)

SEM and TEM images of a multilayer-coated, blazed diffraction grating fabricated by CXRO
SEM image of a micro electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) fabricated by CXRO using the CXRO Nanowriter
SEM of a zoneplate lens fabricated by CXRO using the CXRO Nanowriter

The CXRO Nanowriter.

The Nanowriter (below) supports a broad array of scientific instruments and projects worldwide. Its 8-nm beam size, conbined with its 2-nm overlay accuracy enables patterning of dense features down to 10 nm half-pitch.

Image of the CXRO Nanowriter

The CXRO Nanofab Lab.

The Nanowriter is part of a much larger ecosystem of processing and metrology equipment including:

  • Resist spin/bake
  • Contact aligner
  • Ni + Au electroplating
  • Scanning Electron Microscope
  • Atomic Force Microscope
  • Dry Etch ICP/RIE Etching

The Nanofab lab supports the processing of many common materials:

  • Silicon
  • Si3N4 Membranes
  • Au, Ni, Cr, Pt, Pd, Ge, Ti, Al
  • Sapphire
  • Quartz
  • Electroplated Au, Ni
Dry Etch facility in the CXRO nanofabrication laboratory

Oxford Plasmalab 1500 dual chamber ICP/RIE.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) facility in the CXRO nanofabrication laboratory

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

Custom nanostructures. Integration solutions.
A full spectrum of applications. Here are a few examples:

EUV phase-only computer generated holograms.

Diffractive or holographic optical elements can play an important role in lithography systems by providing an efficient mechanism for generating modified illumination. CXRO's scientific team was the first to demonstrate and characterize an EUV binary phase-only computer-generated hologram allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated. The device shown below achieved an absolute efficiency of 22% into one diffracted order.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of a holographic optical element (HOE) fabricated by CXRO using the CXRO Nanowriter

SEM image of custom EUV phase-only holographic optical element (HOE) before multilayer deposition

SEM cross-seciton of Mo/Si multilayer coating on 2-nm-tall HOE features.

SEM cross-seciton of Mo/Si multilayer coating on 2-nm-tall HOE features.

Far-field diffraction pattern from a binary phase-only EUV HOE revealing the LBNL logo

Far-field +1 order EUV diffraction pattern from the manufactured HOE.

Programmed defects.

Defects buried beneath the reflective multilayer coating can ruin EUV lithography masks. CXRO's Nanowriter is used to create customized, programmed defects for systematic defect detectability and printability studies.

Programmed Defect

SEM cross section of a programmed buried defect coated with a multilayer.

Industry collaboration with Seagate: patterned media.

Templated block-copolymer self-assembly may be a great way to achieve dense patterned media with periods below 20 nm and with long range order over several cm. In collaboration with Seagate, the CXRO Nanowriter has been used to generate self-assembly templates for 0.5 Tb/in2 bit patterned media. Images courtesy of Kim Lee, Seagate.

Patterned Media

SEM of 0.5 Tb/in2 pattern generation template

Patterned Media (2)

SEM of a servo pattern

Weilun Chao

"We believe in close interactions with our collaborators. We pride ourselves on understanding our customers' goals and finding unique solutions for the specific problem at hand. When you find yourself in need of nanofabrication expertise for your research or development project, we are here to help."

Weilun Chao,
Principal Investigator

The Nanofabrication team.

Photo of Erik Anderson

Erik Anderson

Staff Scientist
Photo of David Carlton

David Carlton

Postdoctoral Fellow
Photo of Weilun Chao

Weilun Chao

Staff Scientist
Photo of Farhad Salmassi

Farhad Salmassi

ME Scientific Engineering Associate
Photo of Eugene Veklerov

Eugene Veklerov

Staff Scientist